Shivkant Vaish

Under CSR Provision “Net Profit” Means PBT

One of the biggest confusion, or we can say error of judgment, among companies is the calculation of “Net Profit” as put forward in the Companies Act, 2013 for calculating the prescribed amount of CSR spending. There should not be any confusion as the Act is quite clear regarding this. The Act clearly says that in pursuance of its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Policy, “The Board of every company covered under Section 135, shall ensure that the company spends, in every financial year, at least two per cent (2%) of the average ‘Net Profits’ of the company made during the three immediately preceding financial years”.

The Act uses the term ‘Net Profits’ in the provision and this can mean that PAT or Profit After Tax may be used for calculating CSR amount. But it is the other way round and PBT or Profit Before Tax has to be taken into account for calculation of CSR amount. The Act clearly explains that the “average net profit” shall be calculated in accordance with the provisions of Section 198. As per Section 198 (5) (a), income-tax and super-tax payable by the company under the Income Tax Act, 1961, “shall not” be deducted while arriving at net profit under the कॅल्क्युलेटिंग प्रॉफिट एंड लोस्स section. Thus, Net Profit is Profit Before Tax (PBT) of the company. Considering this, कॅल्क्युलेटिंग प्रॉफिट एंड लोस्स it is of prime importance for the finance department of any company to consider PBT कॅल्क्युलेटिंग प्रॉफिट एंड लोस्स for calculating the prescribed amount of mandatory CSR spending for the company.

Quickest way to solve problems based on successive discounts (Profit-Loss)

The Quantitative Aptitude (QA) Section of government jobs exams like SSC includes many important topics from Arithmetic Ability. Some of them are Averages, percentages, simple interest & Compound interest, Profit & Loss, Discount, Ratio & proportion etc.

Discount is one of the most important topics of Quantitatuive Aptitude section of these prsetigious examinations. This topic generally includes profit & loss related questions and are asked in almost all the competitive exams.But these questions invole logic as well as a lot of calculation.The only issue, thus in solving these type of questions lies in the time that thy consume. And as we have to attempt a plenty of questions in the exam, it is not possible to devote such a long time on these discount based questions.In this post we will discuss about some easy and simple tips to solve these Discount based questions.So let us take first things first ie first we should know what actually Discount based questions are.


Suppose, A and B started their business with Rs.5000 and Rs.10000 respectively.

If after three months A invested another Rs.5000 then we have to consider A's capital for the remaining period is Rs.10000.


Solved Example

Here is an example to understand the basic concept and formulas of Partnership:

Example: A started a business investing Rs. 50,000 in 2015. In 2016, he invested an additional amount of Rs. 20,000 and B joined him with an amount of Rs. 70,000. In 2017, B invested another additional amount of Rs. 20,000 and C joined them with an amount of Rs. 70,000. What will be A’s share in the profit of Rs. 210000 earned at the end of 3 years from the start of the business in 2015?

कॅल्क्युलेटिंग कॅल्क्युलेटिंग प्रॉफिट एंड लोस्स प्रॉफिट एंड लोस्स

मान लीजिए कि हमें USD/JPY की दर 95.620/95.650 है और आप 200 000 USD खरीदने का फैसला किया है। अपने व्यापार, कीमत पूछो पर 95.620 मार डाला है .

200 000 USD * 95.650 = 19 130 000 JPY

तो, आप 200 000 USD खरीदा और बेचा 19 130 000 JPY.

हमें बताएँ कि USD/JPY की दर से 96.400/96.430 करने के लिए बदल जाता है और आप 200 000 USD वापस बेचने का फैसला मान लीजिए। 96.400 बोली की कीमत पर यह कार्रवाई की गई है .

200 000 USD * 96.400 = 19 280 000 JPY

How to Calculate Profit and Loss

प्रारंभिक के बीच अंतर से पूछो और अंतिम बोली मूल्य 75 पिप्स (टर्मिनल में 750) है। इस प्रकार, आप 19 130 000 जापानी येन के लिए 200 000 अमरीकी डालर में खरीदा है और 19 280 000 जापानी येन के लिए 200 000 अमरीकी डालर वापस बेच दिया. .

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